MSE was found to be too toxic with RSG only 2% (Table 3. Kratom X20 Resin Extract Roaring Gap the results for MIT as shown in table 3. A and 3.
is proposed that despite taking up the trypan blue dye the cells were still alive but may kratom liver damage needham not be fully functional. It is speculated that one effect of the MSE treatment could be opening of membrane pores to allow the dyes to get in without proceeding to cell death. However at higher dose of MSE dye uptake is more Kratom X20 Resin Extract Roaring Gap likely to represent cell death.
Based on UV-VIS spectrometer analysis MSE extract Kratom X20 Resin Extract Roaring Gap obtained by this method was estimated to contain approximately 42% of
MIT-like compound. Since the percentage of MIT present in the MSE is high MIT was assumed to be the major contributor for the MSE effects. However it should be born in mind that the methanol-chloroform extract of Mitragyna speciosa Korth used in the current study (MSE) was prepared to maximise the MIT-like chemical content of the extract and is probably not bioequivalent to aqueous extract that humans are exposed to as the result of chewing leaves. Prior to this study MIT was thought to be the compound responsible for the Kratom X20 Resin Extract Roaring Gap narcotic effects of this plant. In the early part of this study basic in vitro toxicology revealed that MSE and MIT have dose dependant toxicity to several human cell lines and the SH-SY5Y cell was the most sensitive. This is not surprising as the central nervous system was pharmacologically determined as the target system for the biological effects of this plant thus a toxicity response might be anticipated in neuronal kratom salem or cells.
This finding is consistent with the result of the previous flow cytometry analysis with PI staining performed in chapter 4 section 4. For MIT treated cells changes of the four populations were not as drastic as MSE treated cells. Q3 and Q4 indicating increased of apoptotic and necrotic cells. For MCL-5 cells (Fig 5. The majority of the cells were evidently located in the Q3 and Q4 indicating the necrotic and late stage of apoptotic populations. This finding supports the cytological examinations previously noted where the cells were predominantly necrotic and in the late stage of apoptosis.
Each photo is representative of 3 similar experiments Kratom X20 Resin Extract Roaring Gap with the same treatment concentration stained with WrightGiemsa staining. Magnification (x 1000). Cytological examination of HEK-293 cells after mitragyna speciosa leaf powder 48 hr treatment with MSE (24 hr treatment and 24 hr doubling time). Each photo is representative of 3 similar experiment with the same treatment concentration stained with WrightGiemsa staining.
Under normal circumstances the four phases of the cell cycle G1 S G2 and M phases are tightly regulated. The entry of the cell into each phase of cell cycle is carefully regulated by cell cycle checkpoints which act as the cell cycle control systems. The cell cycle control system has been identified as a series of proteins (e. Cdks) that work together to activate the different phases of cell cycle (Morgan 2008; Alberts et al 2002). M and metaphase-anaphase transition (Murray and Hunt 1993) Kratom X20 Resin Extract Roaring Gap and these checkpoints maintain cell cycle arrest which gives time for damaged cells to be repaired and then to continue proliferating.